and the development of parliamentary life in Egypt
(Consultation) is one of the principles of government in Islam. Egypt
has witnessed successive developments of consultation throughout its modern
House(1824-1837): Parliamentary life in Egypt first began when Mohamed Ali
established the Upper House in November 1824. This House consisted of
ministers, heads of government departments, two lords from each governorate
elected by the inhabitants of the governorate.
Shoura Council (1829): In the year 1829, Mohamed Ali
established the Shoura Council which consisted of 156 members with Ihrahim,
Mohamed Ali's son, as the speaker of this council.
The Shoura Council of
Deputies (1866-1882): In the year 1866, Khedive Ismail instituted
the Shoura Council of Deputies which is considered the true beginning of
parliamentary life in Egypt.
This council consisted of 76 members elected for 3 years
The Legislative Shoura
Council (1883-1913): In May 1883 and during the
British occupation Khedive Tawfik issued the Regulative Law under which the
Legislative Shoura Council was established. consisting of 30 members. Fourteen
of the members - among whom one of the deputy speakers were appointed by the
Khedive while sixteen permanently members - among whom the second deputy
speakers- were elected.
Legislative Assembly(1913-1914): The
Legislative Assembly was established in the year 1913 consisting of members
according to their positions in the state. They were ministers and members either
elected or appointed. There were 66 elected members and 17 appointed members.
The term of membership was six years.
under the 1923 Constitution: A new era started with the
proclamation of the constitution on April 19, 1923 under a multi party system.
The constitution declared that legislation is the right of parliament giving
the King the right to object. At the same time, the constitution gave the
parliament the right to control the work of the executive power. Under this
constitution, the system was bicameral comprising the senate and the House of
Representatives. However, the 1923 constitution was not
practically applied. The House of Representatives was dissolved more than once
and all the Houses established under this constitution didn't complete their
Houses under the1930 Constitution: The 1923
constitution was abrogated with the declaration of the 1930 constitution on
October 22, 1930 which didn't last for long due to the culminating public
pressure that rejected this constitution and the political system upon which it
was based. A Royal Decree no. 27 for the year 1934 abrogated the 1930
constitution and dissolved the parliament with its two chambers. On December 19, 1935, a Royal Decree no.142
was issued demanding the restoration of the 1923 Constitution. However, the Houses of Representatives
under the 1923 constitution were dissolved more than once and continued until
January 1952 when the parliament was dissolved in the aftermath of the Cairo Fire. No other
parliament was established till July 23, 1952 when the revolution broke out and
when the revolution Leadership Council abrogated the 1923 constitution on
December 10, 1952.
Parliamentary Life after
the July 23 Revolution: 1956Constitution On January 16, 1956, the 1956
constitution was declared and it Was approved by plebiscite on July, 1956.
Under this constitution, the first House of Representatives was established and
due to the Tripartite Aggression, it started its work on July 22, 1957. This
was called the Nation's Assembly which continued until February 10, 1958.
March 1958 Temporary
Constitution: Following the unity with Syria,
the March Temporary Constitution was issued and a joint Nation's Assembly was
established and continued till June22, 1961.
Constitution: In March 1964 a temporary
constitution was proclaimed under which a new Nation's Assembly was elected
consisting of 350 members besides 10 members appointed by the President of the
1971 Permanent Constitution: On
September 11, 1971, the permanent constitution was issued under which elections
for the People's Assembly were held. The people's Assembly held its first
Session on November 11, 1971 and this was the first parliament to complete its
5 years term.
Political Forums Systems: In the year 1976, new elections
were held under the system of political forums that turned later into political
parties under law no.40 of the year 1977 that organizes political parties in Egypt.
Amendment of 1971Constitution: The
establishment of the Shoura Council was approved by plebiscite on April 19,
1979 and so the constitution was amended and approved by plebiscite on May
22,1980. According to this amendment a new chapter was added to the constitution
stating the provisions of this council. The first Session of the Shoura Council
was held on November 1, 1980.